Cha Quan is said to have commenced during the reign of the Ming Di in the Han dynasty, when a warrior from today’s Xinjiang province called Zhamir (查密尔) sometimes romanized as Xianyi (尚义) helped the imperial armies defeat babarian invaders across the northern plains. He was also joined by his colleagues Hua Zhongzhi and Wu Dianzhang. The two methods which were Jiazi and Shenfashi later became known by the post-humous respect of the original transcenders as Cha Quan and Hua Quan, at times these were considered as one style called Chahua Men.
The An Lushan Rebellion
The An Lushan Rebellion (755-763), also known as the An-shi period of chaos/disturbances (安史之乱), was caused by General An Lushan whose parents were unkown, was raised by a Songdian (Ancient Iranian civilization within the province of Achaemenid empire in today’s Central Asia) father and a Tijue (from the Northern ancient Turk tribes) mother. General An Lushan became a favored officer by the Emperor Xuanzong who had given An Lushan control of the garrisons in the Northern areas of Pinglu, Fanyang (near today’s Beijing) and Hedong areas. At the end of 755, General An Lushan revolted against the Tang and captured Luoyang (the Eastern capital at the time). Further expansions followed as they proceeded to take over Changán overcoming the impregnable Tang troops in the Tongguan mountain passes. When An Lushan entered Changán, the Emperor Xuanzong, his court and household fled to Sichuan. Changán was captured by An Lushan in 756.
In 756, Li Heng (son of Tang Emperor Xuanzong) declared himself as the Emperor whist residing in Lingzhou. He organized generals Guo Ziyi and Li Guanbi to deal with the An Lushan rebels. The generals given the loss of troops and manpower after the battles with the rebels throughout the land, decided after much debate to seek help from the Turkish Tujue tribes (the Huihe, also known as Uyghur Khaganate that resided in Mongolia during the time and the ancestors of modern Uyghurs. Over 22,000 Arab mercenaries were sent by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur to join the Tang troops. Military training for the troops combined the methods of the Arab mercenaries with the elite fighters of the Tang that remained. Together the Tang and Tujue troops were successful in re-capturing Changán and Luoyang in 757 most of these mercenaries at least those that survived stayed in China after the war.
History and Development of Chahua Men
It is said that a batallion had headed Eastward from the capital in Chang’an and many had died in conflicts and insurgencies throughout Hebei province. There were three men known as Cha Xiangyi (查尚义), Hua Zhongfeng (滑宗岐) and Wu Dianzhang (武殿璋) that successfully escaped and sought hiding in Guan County. As they were badly injured locals took care of the warriors and aided their wounds. Hua Zhongfeng had incurred the greatest injuries and remained in the village whilst Cha Xiangyi and Wu Dianzhang returned to battle. After recovery Hua Zhongfeng taught the locals military techniques and this was the beginning of Cha Quan.
Cha Xiangyi and Hua Zhongfeng both taught the locals from Guan County and each had their specialties. Hua Zhongfeng’s movements were large and open, which were called Jiazi Quan (Framework Boxing), also known as Dajia Quan (Large Frame Boxing)). Cha Xiangyi taught more compact and faster methods thus referred to as the Xiaojia Quan (Small Frame Boxing), also known as Shen Fa Shi (Body Methods Techniques. They both passed on skills to locals and in their honour later the boxing became Cha Quan (after Zhamir) and Hua Quan (after Hua Zhongfeng), sometimes when together also called Chahua Men (The School of Cha and Hua).
Guan county lies at the border of Henan, Hebei and Shandong provinces, it is the origin of Cha Hua Men which later spread into different areas so that today there are Shandong Cha Quan, Kaifeng Cha Quan and Cangzhou Chahua Men. They also interchanged between them and also absorbed many methods from other martial arts systems.
Sha Liang (沙亮) during the Kangxi period of the Qing dynasty resided in the Zhangyi Village within Guan County, Shandong. Sha Liang passed the five year test and recommended to become an official security officer for Chang’an (todays Xi’an city). After many years of his employment he returned to Guan county, we he imparted his skills at the Qingzhen Si (Mosque) within Zhangyi village. It is said that Sha Liang had extraordinary abilities to learn from other martial arts and during his time in Chang’an had added more skills into the Chahua system. He was nicknamed the “Flying kicks Sha Liang” and became well known. He taught a number of disciples including Zhan Lianyu, Yan Wensheng, Qiu Mingshan and Yang Haiquan.
Since the reign of Qianlong (Qing Dynasty, 1736-1795) Shandong Cha Quan had become divided into three key schools. This is due three Masters whom each enhanced the style with their experience and skills.
Zhang Qiwei (1849-1933) from Zhangyin village, Guan county is the founder of the Zhang Style Cha Quan 张氏查拳.
Yang Hongxiu (1864-1944) from Nanjie area of Guan County central but later moved to Jinan, Shandong, is the founder of Yang Style Cha Quan 杨氏查拳
Li Enju (1857-1932) from Jining (Rencheng) County, Shandong, studied with his father who was from Guan County and later became the founder of Li Style Cha Quan 李氏查拳
Zhang Style is relatively compact, fast and agile. Yang Style has long extensions, smooth transitions and is more aesthetically pleasing. Li Style is continuous, rough and powerful it is the more forceful of all the styles but also the least known.
Cangzhou is known is the home of martial arts in China, since many heroes and warriors heralded from the Cangzhou area. Whilst there are many styles in Cangzhou, there is a Hui-zu (Chinese Muslim) district especially near the Northern Great Mosque, where the two main styles are Liuhe Men and Cha Hua Men.
Cha Quan 查拳 was brought to Cangzhou from Gu’an county during the later part of the Qing Dynasty by Ma Wentong, who passed his skills to Liu Hualong.
Hua Quan 滑拳 was also brought from Sha Maolin who taught Wang Zhenpeng and Yin Fengyuan. Wang Zhenpeng taught his son Wang Junting and Zhang Bao’an.
Liu Hualong had studied both arts and was more open teaching many in the local community including Ma Yunlong, Ma Yukun, Sha Baoxing, Yin Fengyun, Feng Changsheng, Feng Zhenqing, Zhang Changan and so forth. All the branches were united in the next generation thus became known as Cangzhou Cha Hua Men (查滑门) until today.
Kaifeng Cha Quan is also known as Huang Pai Cha Quan (开封黄派查拳).
In the 1830’s, the Kaifeng Eastern Great Mosque invited a martial arts expert from Cangzhou, M Huang Mingxin to teach. It said that Huang heralded from the Cangzhou area but was having difficulties with his father being strict in both academics and martial arts like so many Hui-zu of the area. Huang felt good enough and refused, so he ran away reaching Kaifeng. In those days the local Hui-zu community practiced the Seven Postures boxing (七势门 Qi Shi Men). When Huang was hanging around the Mosque in Kaifeng, a local Seven Postures teacher Wang Zhaoxiang asked to come over (actually was telling him to not watch because in those days martial arts were not practiced in front of strangers). Huang having a peculiar temper at the time refused and after an altercation, lost to the local Master. Ashamed Huang returned to Cangzhou apologized to his father and trained more disciplined than ever before. A few years later Huang returned to Kaifeng seeking out his M Wang. Unfortunately he was no longer there, so Huang asked any local experts for a challenge (in a polite way this time), after that there was a Master Bai Sanxi who noticed the Gong Fu in M Huang. They invited Huang to become their teacher and since then Kaifeng Cha Quan (sometimes referred to as ‘Huang Pai Cha Quan’, was practiced alongside Seven Postures. Huang taught many including Li Zhanfa, Ding Zhankui, Li Gang, Li Zhenxing, Li Shiying, Bai Qingshan, Ding Quanfu, Ni Shilin, Zheng Deshun, Li Changsong, Chen Hongbao, Din Cunfang and so on.
In Kaifeng another important expert was M Zhao Ruqing, he was born with a tall and powerful stature, studying different systems such as Cha Quan with M Huang, Seven Postures with Yan Yunqing, Cha Quan with Li Zhanfa and some Yanqing Quan with Xian Zhengang. He became very well known and was nicknamed ‘Great Knight Zhao’, also becoming brothers with Shandong Zhang Style Cha Quan experts Zhang Xiyan and Chang Zhenfang. Thus Kaifeng Cha Quan was formulated integrated the styles of Cangzhou Cha Hua Men, Qi Shi (Seven Postures) and Shandong Cha Quan to develop unique features until the generations today.
Taiping Chahua Men
Taiping Chahua Men is from Jining, Shandong and Cangzhou, Hebei. After initial introductory studies of Cha Quan with Zhang Wenguang and Sun Changli in Beijing, Yang Zihua and Yang Likai (Yan Encheng line) in Liaocheng and Jining, Shandong. It was not until recently after we have over the last five years further studied the Chahua Men style as practiced in Cangzhou.
The practitioners (Chahua, Yanqing & Da Liuhe Men) are friends and brothers since generations which has enabled the study of Cangzhou Chahua Men. Historcially, many of the boxing methods and weapons are shared amongst the three styles.
Our Chahua Men is mostly based on the teachings of Ma Zhendong, but also from many older generation in Cangzhou. M Ma Zhendong studied Liuhe Men with Hu Jinghua, Li Zhenqing, Hui Fengrong and then Chahua Men with renowned expert Zhang Shaojie, M Ma also after retirement studied with Ma Honglin. M Ma Zhendong is a renowned Traditional TCM Doctor in Cangzhou and is respected by the local community for his services which he offers freely. Together the two lines of Liaocheng Chahua Men and Cangzhou Chahua Men have resulted in the gradual further development of our skills in Chahua Men. Chahua Men is a very huge system which has added methods from many styles, so the curriculum below is current and will be added as we continue to further deepen our studies of Chahua Men.
In Cha Quan the principles of combat are based on : Pi (Chop), Za (smash), Huo (Crack open), fight like Cha Quan; Jin (Compact), Gen (Pursue), Kuai (Quickly), fight like Hua Quan; Ai (Endure), Bang (Shoulder), Ji (press), Kao (Lean), Kua(Hip) ; Shuai (Throw), Da(Strike), Tui(Push), Na(Lock), Hua (Transform); Cha Quan emphasizes striking and kicking techniques whilst Huaquan emphasizes Qin-na (locks and grappling) and Shuaijiao (Throwing). Chaquan is fast and abrupt, Huaquan is fast and continuous.
|十路弹腿、10 roads of Spring Kick)|
六路转, Six Roads Turning)
|十路滑抄、10 roads Huachao)|
十八趟截打, 18 sequences intercepting strikes)
Empty hand methods
|小红拳、Smaller Red Boxing)|
大红拳、Greater Red Boxing)
飞虎拳、Flying Tiger Boxing)
太子拳、Royal Prince Boxing)
张飞拳、General Zhang Fei Boxing)
小砸架、Small Smashing Frame)
六角势、Six Angles Postures)
| 查拳一路母子 Mother son |
查拳二路行手 Moving Hands
查拳三路飞脚 Flying Kick
查拳四路升平 Rising Level
查拳五路关东 Eastern Pass
查拳七路梅花, Plum Blossom
查拳九路龙摆尾,Dragon Whips Tail
查拳十路串拳, Connected fists
|滑拳一路架子, 1 Framework) |
滑拳二路架子, 2 Framework)
滑拳三路架子, 3 Framework)
| Staff |
太子棍 Taizi Staff
九龙太祖棍 Nine Dragons Taizu Staf
f盘龙棍 Coiling Dragon Staff
五虎群羊棍 Five Tigers catch a lamb Staff
四门刀、Four Gates Saber
四叶梅花刀、Plum Blossom Saber
五虎群羊刀、Five Tigers catch a lamb Staff Saber
迎风刀、Towards the wind Saber
金霞刀、Jin Xia Saber
五虎断门刀、Five Tigers break the gate saber
| Double Sabers |
四门双刀、Four Entries Double Sabers
缠丝双刀、Silk Reeling Double Sabers
梅花双刀、Plum Blossom Double Sabers
地躺双刀、Ground Double Sabers
六合双刀、Six Harmony Double Sabers
雙手帶刀、 Double Handed Saber
大小锁喉枪 、Throat Locking Spear
六趟枪 Six sequences of Spear
大花枪 Great Flower Spear
梅花枪 Plum Blossom Spear
青龙枪 Green Dragon Spear九龙枪 9 Dragon Spear
子胥枪 Zixu Spear
大奇枪 Great Mystery Spear
五虎断门枪 Five Tigers break the gate Spear
张飞枪 Zhang Fei Spear
大行枪 Big moving Spear
钩连枪 Hook Spear
风火枪Wind & Fire Spear
双枪 Double Spears
双头蛇 Dual headed Spear
昆吾剑 Kwun Wu Sword
八仙剑 Eight Immortals Sword
三才剑 Three Treasures sword
七星剑 Seven Star Sword
青龙剑 Green Dragon Sword
龙凤剑 Dragon Phoenix sword
龙行剑 Moving Dragon Sword
十三剑 13 Sword
纯阳剑 Chunyang Sword
龙凤双剑 Dragon Pheonix double swords
青龙双剑 Green Dragon double swords
龙形双剑 Dragon Shape double swords
昆吾双剑 Kwun Wu double swords
林双剑 Penetrate the Forest double swords
|Long Handled Sabers |
四门大刀 、Four Gates Long Handled Blade
关公十八刀 、Guan Gong Long Handled Blade
四门朴刀 、Four Gates Pu Dao
梅花大刀 、Plum Blossom Long Handled Blade
春秋大刀 、Spring Autumn Long Handled Blade
龙凤阳钩 Dragon Pheonix double swords
行钩 Moving Hook
护手双钩 Protect the hand hook swords
提篮双钩 Lifting hook swords
梅花双钩 Plum Blossom hook swords
沉香拐 Fragrant Crutch
四门双锏 Double Hard Whips/Rods
十三节鞭 Chain Whip
月牙铲 Moon Spade
燕翅镋 Swallow Wing Halberd